Global Mobile

This Week in Global Mobile | December 10, 2010

At times it's difficult to keep pace with the latest global mobile developments. I hope this selection of news stories from the past week will help you navigate the growing global network of connectivity:

  • On Monday the Treasury Department launched its new website in an effort to “increase Treasury’s abilities to communicate with the public in a transparent and open manner.”"
  • The United Nations teamed up with Cisco Systems in Togo to provide a state-of-the-art ICT training center to help Togolese youth "establish exciting and well-paid careers in the booming ICT sector."
  • Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced a “tech del” focused on female innovators in Sierra Leone and Liberia.
  • Internet access is slowly but steadily rising in Latin America, according to latest data from Nielsen, with Columbia ranked as the number one fastest-growing market.
  • After months of negotiations, BlackBerry maker RIM agreed to provide the Indian government with access to its encrypted messenger service.
  • Google and Amazon each launched a new eBook service, offering access to millions of books over a unique Internet-based system that stores books on the “cloud.” eBook readers around the world should number 30 million by 2013.
  • At Georgetown University, surgeons are using iPads in the operating room to help them access a wide array of medical data, images, and process during operations.
  • CNN’s iReport, a segment which allows viewers to submit their own videos and stories of events, has received reports from every country in the world (except for Nauru).
  • The Indian government demanded an audit of all federal websites in order to make its official Web presence more secure and resistant to cyber attacks.
  • The Economist published an insightful article about The Future Of The Internet, concluding that the Internet must stop devolving into a “collection of proprietary islands” which stifles innovation.
  • Yesterday C.T.O. Aneesh Chopra announced ExpertNet, a “next generation citizen consultation” system which looks to experts in the public to inform federal government decision-making.
  • An international group of researchers analyzed 12 billion landline phone calls in the U.K., creating a fascinating map of Britons' connections.
  • Skype teamed up with the United Nations High Commission for Refugees to provide low-bandwidth video conferencing to UNHCR workers around the world.

This Week in Global Mobile | December 3, 2010

At times it's difficult to keep pace with the latest global mobile developments. I hope this selection of news stories from the past week will help you navigate the growing global network of connectivity:

  • Alec Ross, Secretary Clinton’s Senior Advisor for Innovation, discussed the relationship between technology and open and closed societies at PdF Latin America in Chile last week.
  • China gave Google an ultimatum of July 2011 to meet the government’s demands for obtaining a license to continue operating as an Internet map provider.
  • The European Union launched a formal anti-trust investigation into Google’s handling of its domination of online searches in the E.U. Read Google’s response here.
  • On Wednesday FCC Chairman Julius Genachoswki announced plans to formally enforce net neutrality principles upon Internet service providers while still endorsing a usage-based pricing model. Not everyone is pleased.
  • Cyber Monday 2010 drew record online spending in the United States, with online shoppers spending over $1bn on retail websites in the heaviest spending day on record.
  • A study released by Electronic Arts estimates that the global mobile gaming market will reach $3.4bn this year, increasing by about $500 million each year until 2013.
  • Consumers under 35, and particularly millenials, prefer using mobile apps over browsers on their smartphones, reports market research firm Parks Associates.
  • Recycling unused mobile phones could save each British household £768, reported phone recycling website Sell My Mobile.
  • Lady Gaga, Alicia Keys, and other celebrities jumped off Twitter on World AIDS Day to raise awareness for a charity campaign in Africa and India.
  • Katie Harbath, Chief Digital Strategist for the National Republican Senatorial Committee, thoughtfully explains why campaigns’ mobile strategies need to look beyond text messages to apps and more for true mobile success.
  • James Harkin published a comprehensive and insightful piece outlining the rise of tech and innovation in the State Department’s foreign policy agenda.
  • Verizon announced that its 4G LTE network will go live on Sunday -- but 4G-equipped smart phones won’t be coming our way until 2011.
  • According to Nielsen, nearly 30 percent of American mobile subscribers own smart phones that run full operating systems.
  • 99 percent of non-Times readers deserted the site after it implemented an anti-social media paywall, while 86% of regular Times readers also stopped tuning in.
  • On Wednesday the Federal Trade Commission endorsed a “do not track” policy proposal which would prohibit online advertisers from invading users’ privacy by following their actions on the Web.

The NFC Revolution: Near Field Communication Enters the Fray

Thanks to a new wireless technology coming to some European markets later this year, Coca-Cola vending machines will soon support mobile payments. Consumers will simply have to swipe their phone (equipped with a special sticker tag) near the vendor’s reader to complete the transaction. The service, coming to some 5,000 machines in Belgium and Luxembourg, will soon be integrated into SIM cards in Nokia, Apple, and Android OS mobile devices.

As cool as this new set-up sounds, even more impressive is the innovative Near Field Communication technology behind it. NFC is essentially a “smarter” version of the RFID technology we’re familiar with in our D.C. Metro Smartcards or Visa’s PayPass swipe-to-pay cards. It’s a relatively new standard gaining traction in the mobile community for its versatility as a form of mobile-to-mobile communication capable of transferring anything from data to video to money (read the three ways NFC improves on RFID here).

The major mobile players have already jumped behind NFC. Just this month alone, Apple, Android, and BlackBerry’s manufacturer RIM all revealed intentions to include NFC chips in mobile phones as early as late-2010. Earlier this year, Apple hired a Near Field Communication expert to lead its mobile commerce division. And at the Web 2.0 Summit in San Francisco, Google C.E.O. Eric Schmidt hailed this new technology as the future of mobile payments in the U.S., arguing that NFC “could replace your credit card.”

Mobile operators have also begun to embrace Near Field Communication. Earlier this month, Verizon, AT&T, and T-Mobile announced a joint venture to bring NFC-enabled mobile payments to their combined 200 million subscriber base. The brand, called “Isis,” has ambitious goals, as the initiative’s C.E.O. Michael Abbott explains:

While mobile payments will be at the core of our offering, it is only the start. We plan to create a mobile wallet that ultimately eliminates the need for consumers to carry cash, credit, and debit cards, reward cards, coupons, tickets, and transit passes.

Isis’ biggest challenge will be pulling the major financial players on board, particularly at  a time when most of them are pursuing their own similar ventures. One RFID-based service by Visa, for example, allows consumers to swipe their mobile phones to pay at McDonald’s or part of the NYC subway. Discover and MasterCard also have similar “contact-less” payment options at some vendors. Isis’ success -- and perhaps that of NFC in the United States -- will hinge largely on the extent to which these players can be convinced to jump on board.

While we’re certainly in the midst of an NFC revolution here in the United States, the technology’s immense potential has already been proven elsewhere around the world. In Japan, mobile phone users have been equipped with the technology on a commercial level since 2004, allowing consumers to pay for subway transit, meals at restaurants, and most vending machines in major cities. The development didn’t stop then and there; Japanese mobile operator KDDI recently partnered with a wide range of major corporations, including Toyota and IBM, to bring NFC tech to everything from cars to televisions to robots.

It’s no secret that Americans are reluctant to leave their wallets at home to adopt mobile money, but with the help of NFC this could soon change (in fact, one recent study shows that 89 percent of young consumers are now open to adopting mobile wallet services). But perhaps the most exciting part is that the Near Field Communication revolution is taking place right now. While relatively few NFC chips are floating around in the United States at the moment, major chip-makers expect between 40 and 50 million NFC-enabled phones in the market by the end of 2011.

Mobile money is clearly an exciting and burgeoning market, particularly in developing countries, but it’s important to mention that NFC threatens to widen the digital divide. For the most part, the technology only applies to smartphones and other more sophisticate mobile devices which are out of reach for the vast majority of mobile users. So while some of us start swiping our iPhones at the Coke machine, we can’t forget to focus on making this tech more versatile and accessible for people across the world.

9-1-1 Gets a 21st-Century Makeover

Last week FCC Chairman Julius Genachowski introduced an updated 9-1-1 system which allows emergency responders to receive calls using mobile technologies. In December, said Genachowski at a public safety event in Virginia, the FCC will consider restructuring the 9-1-1 system with a broadband-enabled dispatch system capable of utilizing SMS, photos, automated calls, and videos. He explained:

Broadband-enabled, next-generation 9-1-1 will revolutionize emergency response by providing increased means of communications -- including texting, data, video, and photo -- which will improve situational awareness and rapid response... With today's advances in commercial mobile broadband technologies, consumers are using their phones less to make calls and more for texting and sending.

Although specifics haven’t been developed yet, Laptop Magazine has some insight into what this Next-Gen system will look like:

“Call centers will be allowed to receive texts, expand their multimedia capabilities, and pave the way for emergency calls to be accepted by devices in addition to people. These devices will also include environmental sensors such as highway cameras, security cameras, alarms, personal medical devices, telematics, and consumer electronics in mobiles.”

There’s little doubt that an update to the existing 9-1-1 format is long-overdue. Seventy percent of the 230 million emergency calls made every year come from mobile phones, and allowing people to call for help with the efficiency and discretion of an SMS could have life-saving consequences.

Still, the new system will bring with it new challenges. Arlington County Police Chief Doug Scott believes that call centers could easily be “overloaded” by a flood of text messages and data, requiring an increase in staffing at dispatch centers. Homeland Security Bureau Chief Jamie Barnett, speaking alongside Genachowski in Virginia, explained that implementing this new system across the country will require a “coordinated team effort” among a variety of players ranging from lawmakers, public safety officials, and telecom companies. The costs associated with NG9-1-1 are also a little daunting; although Genachowski provided no figures, a 2008 Department of Transportation estimate expects the project to cost up to $87 billion over twenty years.

Next-Gen 9-1-1 is only the most recent of a slew of innovations seeking to incorporate mobile technology into emergency response strategies. A professor at UMD-College Park hopes to roll out a new system which encourages students to use their smart phones to submit videos to campus police during emergencies. The Chronicle of Higher Education explains this new Video 9-1-1 system:

[Video 9-1-1] will enable callers to stream sights and sounds from the scene to dispatchers. The emergency app will also draw on GPS and other location technology available in many phones to pinpoint the call sources, then use surveillance cameras around the university to get a comprehensive pictures of what's happening on the ground. In addition, dispatchers will broadcast the information to first responders watching live video feeds on laptops en route to the scene.

Catchy as it may sound, Video 9-1-1 has some serious roadblocks to work around. Dr. Ashok Agrawala, the project’s leader, needs to raise $150,000 to get a pilot program launched at College Park. Like the FCC’s new system, Agrawala must also get mobile carriers and emergency responders on board, and his team also must make the downloadable software work on BlackBerry, Android, and iPhone OS without glitches. But Agrawala and his colleagues are optimistic; Jay Gruber, Assistant Chief of Police at UMD-College Park, says, “I honestly think [Video 9-1-1] is going to change the way 9-1-1 information is received across the country.”

Next-Gen 9-1-1 and UMD’s mobile video project reveal a growing and potentially life-saving trend in incorporating mobile tech in security, but the challenges they face reveal why it may take years, if not decades, to transform emergency response systems in the United States. For example, four years ago Nokia submitted a U.S. patent request for a similar mobile SMS/video emergency reporting system, but years later the project failed to get traction, no doubt due to rapid evolution in mobile technology and the massive challenge of implementing the system across platforms, operators, and devices. Still, Genachowski’s announcement makes clear that the future of 9-1-1 emergency response will rely heavily on emerging mobile innovations.

This Week in Global Mobile | November 26, 2010

At times it's difficult to keep pace with the latest global mobile developments. I hope this selection of news stories from the past week will help you navigate the growing global network of connectivity:

  • On Tuesday FCC Chairman Julius Genachowski and other leaders announced steps to revolutionize America’s 9-1-1 emergency system by harnessing mobile technologies such as text messaging.
  • Hylas-1, Europe’s first satellite dedicated to delivering broadband Internet to the continent, launched successfully on Friday.
  • Mobile web usage around the world is highest in Africa and Asia, according to research firm Royal Pingdom.
  • Broadband speeds in Europe rose sharply over the past year with 14 percent more lines serving at least 10Mbps connections, according to the latest European Commission figures.
  • Senator Ron Wyden (D-OR) promised to delay a vote on a controversial Internet privacy bill he calls “a bunker-busting cluster bomb” that oversteps the government’s censorship power.
  • Coca-Cola is developing vending machines that support mobile payments using Near Field Communication, a new technology which will allow customers to swipe their mobile phone near a machine to make the purchase.
  • Android surpassed long-established leader Symbian as the most-used mobile operating system in Asia.
  • A new wireless armband monitors patients of dementia and Alzheimer’s, sending mobile warnings to caretakers as well as customized medication reminders and GPS coordinates.
  • 28 percent of the $127 billion spent during the Thanksgiving holiday break were expected to go towards mobile and social media products, reported an IDC Retail survey.
  • Integrated wi-fi systems will be sold in 7.2 million cars in 2017 -- up 40 times from the 174,000 wireless cars expected to hit the road this year -- according to research firm iSuppli.
  • According to Hitwise, Facebook accounts for 25 percent of all page views in the United States -- and one in five of those visitors’ news feeds is afflicted with malware.
  • Leading health care professionals believe that mHealth technologies will be administered through mainstream health care channels such as doctors and hospitals by 2015, according to a global survey released last week.
  • Last week the U.S. government censored 70 websites accused of facilitating copyright infringement -- but unlike in other cases around the world, the sites are blocked in all countries.
  • A new study reveals that 90 percent of corporate security breaches are made inadvertently by employees sharing information on social networking sites.
  • Former President George W. Bush announced that he will be answering user-submitted questions about his new book Decision Points live from Facebook headquarters this afternoon.
  • Media mogul Rupert Murdoch announced plans to create an iPad-only news outlet called The Daily. The beta launch is expected around Christmas at a cost of 99 cents per week.

The Father of the Internet on the Future of the Web

Last Friday Dr. Robert Kahn, viewed by many as the founder of the Internet, spoke about the development and future of the Internet at Georgetown University. Dr. Khan, who pioneered DARPA’s Internet initiative and co-invented the Internet Protocol (IP) system, spoke at length about the emergence of the Web and its evolution into the future.

Looking forward into a world where billions are connected to each other using Internet-equipped devices, Dr. Kahn’s speech offered several important takeaways. The first lesson he shared was the importance of understanding what exactly the Internet is -- and what it isn’t. Kahn’s technical definition (“A series of protocols which connect components”) is not the most tangible one, but it does remind us that the Internet is not some concrete thing, located in some server somewhere (Kahn himself detests the term “cloud,” because it allocates a physical location to the Internet).

Rather, Kahn told us, the Internet is an infrastructure which enables two or more “components” (devices, handhelds, computers, etc.) to communicate with each other. Only once we conceive the Internet as such do we begin to see its vast potential to connect people using their Web-enabled mobile devices. The power of 21st-century ICTs is not necessarily that this communication is possible, but that the “protocols” which comprise the Web are based on open and evolving structure.

The IP address (a 32-bit set of numbers which identifies a device in a network) was a child of this open architecture. Working at DARPA trying to connect several computers in a room to each other, Kahn and his colleagues initially described computers by the color of the cord connecting them. Realizing that this Internet technology could apply to dozens of devices throughout the building, Kahn invented the Internet Protocol to help assign a unique number to each networked component. “Defining standard interfaces [such as the IP address] made it possible to manage the evolution of the Internet without managing the individual components,” Kahn said.

In today’s hyper-connected world, Kahn’s foresight cannot be understated. It would be impossible to manage a network of billions without the standard of the IP address. But IPs the way Kahn conceived them are already having to adapt to the rapidly inflating global network; we’re due to run out of IP addresses within a year (fortunately, a newer protocol called IPv6 is already being integrated into the infrastructure of the Internet to allow for centuries of new IP addresses). Said Kahn, the story of the IP address and its evolution is a story of success for open architecture and development. “Fundamentally,” he told us, “the architecture of the Internet has remained unchanged over the past 40 years” -- a remarkable fact given how dramatically Web use has evolved over that time.

During his lecture, Kahn shared various other ideas about the way the Internet will be managed in the future, or rather, how it should not be governed. “When the world discovered the Internet 10-15 years ago, virtually every country believed that it was essential to their future development,” Kahn told us, “Yet many of the countries had one lead question: Who’s in charge? Well, just like the global economy, world health, and weather patterns don’t have anyone in charge, neither should the Internet.” Kahn’s fear is that granting countries the authority to govern the Internet would inevitably lead to censorship. More importantly, doing so reveals a lack of understanding on how the Web operates: “Governance of the Internet is all about how the players coordinate,” not how countries monitor it.

To review, Kahn’s defense for an ungoverned Internet relies on the open architecture upon which it is built. To paraphrase Kahn, governments can restrict Web access, but they can’t deconstruct its protocols and architecture, so any device or “component” capable of reading these protocols will provide its user with access to the network of information. It all comes down to the open development and continued open-source evolution of the Web, which Kahn believes hold the key to the Internet’s success for hundreds of years to come.

This Week in Global Mobile | November 19, 2010

At times it's difficult to keep pace with the latest global mobile developments. I hope this selection of news stories from the past week will help you navigate the growing global network of connectivity:

  • Global fixed broadband subscribers increased by 1.4% to 463 million between Q2 and Q3, reports ABI Research.
  • Americans’ concerns over their privacy on social networking sites increased over the past year, Forrester Research reported last week.
  • Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg announced a new messaging service which combines e-mail, SMS, and instant messenger using a comprehensive “” account.
  • Just over two-thirds (65%) of Internet users world-wide have fallen victim to cybercrimes such as credit card fraud, according to the Norton Cybercrime Report.
  • At this week’s Web 2.0 Summit, Google C.E.O. Eric Schmidt announced that future releases of Android will support Near Field Communications, a protocol which enables smart phones to communicate and exchange data with each other. BlackBerry’s maker RIM followed with a similar announcement the next day.
  • Smart phone sales will outnumber those of personal and laptop computers by 2012, with  more than 450 million units sold, reports Morgan Stanley.
  • Infodev awarded six grants to the winners of its Creating Sustainable Businesses context, which challenged applicants to use mobile social media to improve their economies.
  • The U.K. commissioner for communications rejected the idea of instituting net neutrality rules on the country’s Internet service providers.
  • On Wednesday the Urgent Communications Journal unveiled a new emergency broadcast system which uses mobile technologies such as SMS to deliver urgent news to the public.


Internet Freedom: More than Circumvention

In today's Journal, Rebecca MacKinnon has an op-ed on the struggle in Washington to get the money to be the guy who uses the internet to knock down authoritarian governments around the world. Easier said than done, she says, and calls attention to the fact that circumvention tools-- while great for getting around censorship-- are not the silver bullet they've been made out to be.

Many governments have gone beyond censorship and begun using new tactics to control the online public sphere: "cyber-attacks, surveillance, and good old-fashioned intimidation" are all part of ever-more sophisticated efforts at crushing online dissent, and the dissidents, in many places, are losing the battle badly. So, beyond circumvention, MacKinnon writes:

A range of fast-evolving technical problems requires an array of solutions. Activists around the world need technical assistance and training in order to fight cyber-attacks more effectively. We need more coordination between human rights activists, technology companies and policy makers just to understand the problems, and how they can be expected to evolve in the next few years. What's more, existing research indicates that many of the problems aren't technical, but rather political, legal, regulatory and even social.

I'd encourage a read of the whole piece, here.  Happy Friday.

Barriers to Information Freedom: Barriers to Trade

Earlier this week, Google's public policy shop released a white paper arguing for obstructions to the global free flow of information to be seen as barriers to free trade. The paper came out on the deadline for comments on the Commerce Department's notice of inquiry on this subject (though apparently the deadline was extended for a few extra weeks-- there's still time!), and took on all the big questions sought by Commerce's Internet Policy Task Force:  How are governments restricting the internet? What is the impact of these restrictions?  What can we do about it? The white paper is a good read, but 25 pages, so, forthwith, a summary and some thoughts:

The white paper outlines the tremendous economic impact and potential of the internet (1.7 billion users! [i.e.: customers] Global markets for local companies!), and then spends considerable time describing the ways that "more than 40" governments disrupt the free flow of information on the internet, identifying four "common characteristics" of the restrictions.  First, restrictive governments will often impose rules or regulations on online service providers without making those rules clear and publicly available.  Second, governments will block entire platforms or services based on individual pieces of content or the actions of a small number of users. Third, foreign companies are frequently disadvantaged in favor of local companies. And fourth, restrictive governments apply their laws arbitrarily and haphazardly, targeting some violators while ignoring others.

These restrictions have real impacts on trade and economic growth, as the next section of the paper argues. With restrictions, companies have a harder time reaching their customers, and even when they do, the degradation of their service lowers its value. When restrictions target "intermediary" companies-- search engines, blogging platforms, cloud-based services-- the effects are magnified, as they impact not just the blocked service, but other businesses-- both local and foreign-- that rely on the service for their own business. The ultimate effects of restrictions are lowered revenues for internet companies and others who depend on the blocked services, a high degree of uncertainty that makes it impossible for firms to plan their work, and unfair advantages given-- often intentionally-- to local, unrestricted businesses.

The white paper suggests three main steps for policymakers to combat barriers to free information/trade on the internet.  First, they must call attention to the restrictions imposed by foreign governments and the effects they have on the global economy. Second, policymakers must take action in instances where restrictions on the free flow of information online are in violation of existing international trade rules. The paper puts particular emphasis on the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which extends the WTO's jurisdiction over goods to services, including information and communications services.  

Third, they must protect free flows of information in future international trade rules by establishing global openness as the default position, and mandating stronger transparency rules. The Korea-U.S. Free Trade Agreement currently in negotiation already includes language that acknowledges the importance of information freedom in facilitating trade and restricts barriers to any information flow. The paper mentions other trade forums that could be ripe for introducing these ideas, including the Trans-Pacific Partnership Trade Agreement, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, and the Doha Round of negotiations under the WTO, should it move forward.

This white paper is a valuable contribution to a side of the "internet freedom" conversation that has gotten less attention this year.  In her January speech on Internet Freedom, Secretary Clinton made clear that the free flow of information was an economic issue, as well as a strategic issue and a human rights issue. Most discussion, however, has centered on a universal right of access to information, described by Article 19 of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights.  While compelling and stirringly idealistic (I've defended this right on this blog many times before), arguments based on issues of human rights often don't gain the purchase in the policy world that economic arguments do.  If we're going to knock down barriers to information freedom-- for the sake of human rights, economic interests, Western values, or whatever else-- taking the economic approach is likely to be the most effective.

Related to white paper, the Center for Democracy and Technology just published a really interesting blog post about fees charged to Chinese universities by their government for accessing "international data." Any time a student at a major university in China accesses a news or information portal hosted in another country, they pay a tax. As Google's paper mentions, restrictions on information freedom have the effect-- intentionally, in China's case-- of creating a fragmented internet: individual "intranets" rather than a single, global network. The sort of "data protectionism" that CDT describes inevitably deepens national divides, making the world less global and interconnected, and preserves the disparities in information access that idealists once hoped the internet could tear down. It's troubling to watch these barriers erected and strengthened.

Back in August, we held an event here at NDN on the global free flow of information, and were fortunate to host Anita Ramasastry, co-chair of the "Free Flow of Information on the Internet" working group in the Commerce Department's Internet Policy Task Force; she spent much of her talk discussing the trade approach to information freedom.  You can read a summary and watch a video of the event here.

This Week in Global Mobile | November 12, 2010

At times it's difficult to keep pace with the latest global mobile developments. I hope this selection of news stories from the past week will help you navigate the growing global network of connectivity:

  • British health officials are developing a mobile phone which can process urine or saliva samples in order to diagnose sexually-transmitted diseases.
  • Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes explained his upcoming project Jumo, a social network for philanthropists, in an interview with Washington Post’s Cecilia Kang.
  • An African National Congress (ANC) official believes that IT solutions are the key to reducing high unemployment in South Africa.
  • Worldwide mobile phone sales grew 35% in Q3 while smart phone sales increased by 96%, according to the latest report out by Gartner.
  • Neelie Kroes, the European Union’s digital agenda commissioner, rejected the notion of introducing net neutrality rules on the continent in a speech in Brussels.
  • The Asia-Pacific region will consume a quarter of global mobile data by 2015, triggered by an increasing availability of 3G networks in the vast Indian market, reports ABI Research.
  • Obama’s once-revolutionary support from the netroots has withered significantly since its heyday of the 2008 elections, reports Daniel Lyons in Newsweek.
  • This holiday season, Google will provide free in-flight wireless Internet to about 15 million passengers on over 700 planes in the U.S.
  • Internet heavyweights Facebook and Google clashed this week over a dispute on privacy and data collection policies for importing Google contacts into Facebook.
  • On Wednesday the FCC announced that it launched an investigation into a potential data breach by Google’s Street View service.
  • Google Maps is increasingly becoming a digital battlefield for international border disputes, as Jennifer Valentino-DeVries reports.
  • Facebook is about to introduce its very own e-mail system, jumping on the fact that the services message system has replaced e-mail for many users.
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